Instructional Design Concept Map

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It may look a bit like the chaos of Custer’s military stance at Little Big Horn (because there are arrows everywhere), but believe me there is organization in the madness.  This assignment had many layers which once compressed together, you get a concept map comparing four instructional design (ID) models with ADDIE.

PDF Version:  ConceptMapofIDModels                  Google Docs Version: ID Concept Map

So who is this ADDIE anyway?  Many specialists in the field consider her the core concepts within all ID models.  ADDIE represents analyze, design, develop, implement, and evaluate.  These are very active and threaded in many ID models, but the four that I chose are:

  1. The Heinich, Molenda, Russell, and Smaldino ASSURE Model: A great model for classroom instruction in general.
  2. The Newby, Stepich, Lehman, and Russell PIE Model:  A model specifically designed for the implementation of technology into classroom instruction.
  3. The Bergman and Moore Model for interactive multimedia:  A model that considers how technology can be developed for learning environments.
  4. Smith and Ragan Model: A systematic approach to creating instructional strategies.

Since we were given the liberty to develop the concept map based on the four models that we chose, it is logical that my classmates would have likely chosen other models or represented the same models in a different way.  Based on my observations, I found one model similar to mine in that the four represented models were not interconnected for the most part.  One of my colleagues clearly showed four models but managed to find a way to connect them together while at the same time they connected to ADDIE.  There was one other concept map that did not clearly show which four models were being represented.

Since ADDIE can be considered like the back-bone of instructional design, I decided to place it like a vertebrae in the middle of the page.  This gave me easy access to the concepts as I laid out the more specific steps within each model.  The color coding was designed to associate each element with a specific model, therefore you see some elements repeated.  I decided not to expand the page when I started so therefore many of my elements had to be contracted into smaller spaces.  I alluded to common elements within each model which could have been a way of showing an interrelationship between them, but since each model was designed with a specific instructional strategy or goal, I felt it was best to keep them separate.

The layout of ADDIE on the page practically forced each model to be represented in a linear fashion, but not all models are meant to be linear.  Even linear models can have a circular need when revision requires new analysis.  If the concept map was able to focus on just one model, I could have more liberty to show how the train engine relates to the caboose.

Gustafson, Kent L.; Branch, Robert Maribe, (2002) Survey of instructional design models. fourth edition, Eric Clearinghouse on Information and Technology, Syracuse, NY.
This Assignment Completes the following AECT Standards:
  • 1.1.b Identify a variety of instructional systems design models and apply at least one model.

  • 1.1.c Identify learning theories from which each model is derived and the consequent implications.


    1.1.3.b Demonstrate personal skill development with at least one: computer authoring application, video tool, or electronic communication application.

  • 1.3.c Analyze their selection of instructional strategies and/or models as influenced by the learning situation, nature of the specific content, and type of learner objective.

  • 2.1.2 Produce print communications (e.g., flyers, posters, brochures, newsletters) combining words and images/graphics using desktop publishing software.


    2.1.3 Use presentation application software to produce presentations and supplementary materials for instructional and professional purposes.


Instructional Design: Module one discussion

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In this assignment we were asked to read various descriptions and analysis of the concept “Instructional Design (ID)”.  Most notably, we considered general purpose and function of ID and the theories and models that guide it.  Due to the many variables that affect the effectiveness of ID, an array of options have developed over time to support the different opinions and and emphasis.  Though ID has accrued some criticism because of it’s never ending attempt to present a standard method for instruction, most people that work in any kind of instruction or education field realize that all models of ID have the same goal, distributing instruction as effectively and efficiently as possible.

In addition to the reading, I was asked to respond to the following questions

  1. What do you think the word “design” implies? What does “instructional design” means to you? How does the meaning change when adding the word “systematic” in front of “instructional design“?

The word “design” is used by commerce in their job descriptions, by artists in their creation, and by philosophers (especially theologians) in their reason.  Despite the broad application of the word, it basically comes down to describing the process of making something with a purpose, or sometimes describing the purpose for which something was made.  Therefore, the word design implies that there is a designer and he or she has a purpose.  The focus of “instructional design (ID)” implies that a designer has some important information or knowledge that they want to transmit to other people, so they consider the best approach for passing the instructions.

Since we live in a world full of concrete and abstract ideas and skills, society has created a science and an art for disseminating information and knowledge; it is called instructional design.  The scientific and artistic aspects are forced to inhabit the same field of study, but not always in harmony.  The scientific branch of ID likes to apply the word “systematic”, hence you often see the term “Instructional Systems Design”.  This now implicates that there is a standard process that produces a standard result, or at least tries.  Furthermore, it supposes that there is a system that can be applied to a variety of circumstances that will promote the best learning outcome.  The artistic aspect of ID reminds us that learning does not always take place in laboratory with controlled variables, so we must modify or adapt our approach to the variables of the recipients or learning environment.

  1. Share your own experiences to illustrate your point(s) above. When you share your experiences, be sure to describe the process you use to design or create learning experiences for others. It does not need to be in formal learning environments such as schools or professional development courses.

Mostly, I have worked with students that have deficiencies in the English language or deficiencies in cultural context of information.  During my work in public school in Texas, I was trained in one popular ID model called Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP).  This is a linear model that emphasizes 8 components that spans lesson preparation, delivery, and assessment.  One key component is building a background knowledge, which constructs a learning foundation before you ask the learner to interact with new ideas.  Of course this model works well for teachers because it assumes you already know your students and their level.  Though it did not train me to develop curriculum, it did give me a good system to follow for constructing lessons.  However, the nature of my teacher role varied from year to year, so I never was able to build upon previous lessons.  This is why I was constantly adapting or modifying my strategies to fit the learner profile, which is why I can relate strongly to the artistic aspect of ID.

  1. In your opinion, how does Instructional Design relate to Educational Technology?

Last semester, I read and wrote about digital inequality, which refers to the unequal access and knowledge of technology.  Many people in education are putting the fight against digital inequality at the forefront of their missions and goals.  They recognize how this gap in knowledge and experience will limit people from interacting with society and if society does not confront this, it will put them at a disadvantage on the world stage.  This is just one aspect of educational technology, but it does assume that there is crucial technology knowledge that needs to be disseminated throughout society.  Furthermore, there are specialist in ID that are determining the best way to educate the masses and to give them appropriate access to technology.  On the other hand, many instructional designers realize that technology could  serve as a medium for transmitting instruction that may not be strongly related to technology, therefore, they kill two birds with one stone, so to speak, by transmitting important knowledge while the learner is appropriately interacting with technology .

  1. Share a short description of the topic you plan to work on for the required Instructional Design project in this course.

During a 3 session instruction of 1 hour intervals, a group of K-12 teachers will be able to produce and analyze student surveys and quizzes on

In this assignment, I developed the following AECT standards:

  • 1.1.b Identify a variety of instructional systems design models and apply at least one model.
  • 1.1.c Identify learning theories from which each model is derived and the consequent implications.